Check out the June 2015 issue of Catholic Library World

CLW June 2015 coverWant to learn more about the Jesuit Libraries Provenance Project in particular and the digital future of Jesuit Studies in general?  Check out the June 2015 (Vol 85, No 4) issue of the Catholic Library World, the peer-reviewed journal of the Catholic Library Association.  In this issue there are six articles by Loyola faculty and students on the various digital projects launched in conjunction with the 2014 exhibition, Crossings and Dwellings: Restored Jesuits, Women Religious, American Experience, 1814-2014.  They tackle a range of different types of historical sources – maps, letters, books, and material artifacts — and use a range of open source digital platforms for making these objects and scholarship about them more accessible to scholarly and popular audiences.  Articles include:

  • Kyle Roberts, “Digital Future of Jesuit Studies”
  • Edward Englestad, “De Smet’s Map: How Digital Tools Unlocked a Hidden Story”
  • Michael Polowski, “Visualizing De Smet’s Correspondence”
  • Jessica Hagen, “Jesuit Libraries Project: Digital Approaches to Analyzing a Historical Library Catalog”
  • Evan Thompson, “Jesuit Libraries Provenance Project”
  • Hope Shannon, “New Media at the Museum”

Each author shares her or his experience with the opportunities and challenges of doing a digital project on a different type of analog historical source and some of the lessons learned.  You might find some inspiration to create your own project!


Summer Reading I

The latest issue of the Journal of Jesuit Studies has arrived just in time for the end of the spring semester.  Aficionados of Jesuit print culture are in for a treat: the whole issue is dedicated to fascinating new scholarship on Jesuit libraries.  Editor Kathleen M. Comerford takes a global approach and has sought out articles on regions whose book and library culture have received less study over the past few decades: the Orinoco Delta, Japan, Ethiopia, Beirut, Canada, and Croatia.

Comerford identifies several overarching themes that tie the essays together, and which raise important questions about Jesuit libraries in other times and places.  First, she reminds us that libraries need to be considered first and foremost as a component of Jesuit missionary activity, providing materials that will be shared with their target audiences and which will also be resources (and relief!) for Jesuit missionaries.  Second, while the Constitutions of the Society often spell out the necessity of forming a library in a new field, they rarely specified which books had to be contained within it. As a result books in Jesuit libraries often comes from a variety of sources, by a range of means, and for a diversity of reasons.  Third, and only tantalizingly touched upon, is the way in which Jesuits confronted modernity and modernization through their libraries.  Finally, Comerford stresses the importance of placing Jesuit libraries, in particular, and print culture, in general, within the Society’s global context.

Three articles look at Jesuit missionary book culture in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.  The work of José del Rey Fajardo, SJ on seventeenth-century Jesuit missions to the Orinoco Delta reminds us of the preconditions — linguistic diversity, illiteracy — which needed to be addressed before a library could even be useful.  In Fajardo’s telling, the libraries in these regions were more of a resource for highly-trained European Jesuits who felt isolated in the field.  Yoshimi Orii explores the complex ways in which Jesuits translated European books for Japanese audiences.  Books can also become proxies for people and faith reveals Kristen Windmuller-Luna in a fascinating essay on Ethiopian missions.  There Jesuits encountered the exact opposite of the Orinoco Delta: a longstanding culture of the book.  But efforts to erase doctrinal error led Jesuits to efface beloved works of the Ethiopian Orthodoxy, only to find their own libraries – and even themselves — erased not long after.

Two articles situate Jesuit libraries in the twentieth century.  Through his study of the Oriental Library of the Université Saint-Joseph in Beirut, Rafael Herzstein reveals the way in which libraries were shaped in reflection to the context in which they were located.  His focus on scholarly magazines published under the aegis of the library remind us of the way in which writing, translating, and printing have long been part of the Jesuit missionary enterprise, even as their preferred formats have changed over time.  Gordon Rixon, SJ shows how the provenance of books collected from the relatively late library of Regis College in Toronto (founded 1930) illustrate the long history of Jesuit-Native American interaction, although he does not explicitly reveal if they were collected for that reason or (as it sounds) if the library collected everything that was sent to it from Canada’s Jesuit houses.  Intention and chance are opposing but omnipresent realities of library growth.  The real treasure in his essay is a fantastic reproduction, description, and analysis of a visual mnemonic for a pedagogical plan designed by Nicholas Point for one of the Native reductions in Canada.  It is a rich document that will be incorporated into my teaching this fall semester.

Finally, Marica Šapro-Ficović and Željko Vegh’s article on Croatian Jesuit libraries takes a longue durée approach, spanning the pre- and post-suppression order.  Particularly valuable in their account is the attention paid to the way in which Jesuits shaped their library collections in relation to local circumstances.   Rather than all having identical collections, Jesuits built libraries that responded to local needs and opportunities.

Check out this excellent new issue of the Journal and share with us what you’re looking forward to reading in the coming months!



Countdown to Flickr and Our First Case of “Binding Waste”


With a little less than two weeks to go until we officially launch the Jesuit Libraries Provenance Project Flickr site, the pressure and the excitement is brewing! As I continue to hammer away at the Flickr site uploading, tagging, describing, and linking photographs, Sarah and Evan are working hard down in the trenches photographing the books. And let me tell you, they’ve found some interesting things…

Below is an excerpt from Sarah’s blog, which you can also view by clicking here:

With this week came another round of photographing, and a new discovery. As Evan and I were rounding up the books to be photographed, arranging them, and recording all of their elements, I noticed that some of the books were in terrible shape. Many of the books we come across are boxed to prevent further deterioration.

After photographing one of the covers of a particular volume of “History of the Catholic Church” by M. l’Abbé J. E. Darras, I saw that the binding of the book was slowly being separated from its spine wide enough so that I could see the original material that bound the book. What I saw made me do a “double-take”; there was text on the interior of the book binding. What’s stranger is what I thought to be one anomalous and perhaps lackadaisical binding of a book was not the only instance of this binding that I found today:

sul 2 blog

What Sarah and Evan ran into this week is commonly referred to as “binding waste.” With the advent of the print revolution in Europe during the fifteenth century, book binders often used any paper material they could get their hands on both to fix damaged books and bind brand new books hot from the press.

In medieval times, manuscripts were often the most common material used to bind and re-bind books. The Harry Random Center launched the Medieval Fragments Project on Flickr in 2012 with the hopes of identifying binding waste in their collection from medieval manuscripts.

As time went on and manuscripts ran out, old books and newspapers became the next culprits. Needless to say this won’t be the last time we run into binding waste, and you’ll find plenty of it that will need identifying on our Flickr Site starting March 8th! Stayed tuned for more interesting updates on what we’re finding behind the scenes!


Is the Future of Books in Jeopardy?


This past week, columnist Charles M. Blow of The New York Times wrote an artful and personal article about the profound impact books have had on his life. He also notes a situation everyone in society today can agree on: book readership is in declineBelow is the article, which you can also find by clicking here:


The first thing I can remember buying for myself, aside from candy, of course, was not a toy. It was a book. It was a religious picture book about Job from the Bible, bought at Kmart. It was on one of the rare occasions when my mother had enough money to give my brothers and me each a few dollars so that we could buy whatever we wanted. We all made a beeline for the toy aisle, but that path led through the section of greeting cards and books. As I raced past the children’s books, they stopped me. Books to me were things most special. Magical. Ideas eternalized.

Books were the things my brothers brought home from school before I was old enough to attend, the things that engrossed them late into the night as they did their homework. They were the things my mother brought home from her evening classes, which she attended after work, to earn her degree and teaching certificate. Books, to me, were powerful and transformational.

So there, in the greeting card section of the store, I flipped through children’s books until I found the one that I wanted, the one about Job. I thought the book fascinating in part because it was a tale of hardship, to which I could closely relate, and in part because it contained the first drawing I’d even seen of God, who in those pages was a white man with a white beard and a long robe that looked like one of my mother’s nightgowns. I picked up the book, held it close to my chest and walked proudly to the checkout. I never made it to the toy aisle.

That was the beginning of a lifelong journey in which books would shape and change me, making me who I was to become. We couldn’t afford many books. We had a small collection. They were kept on a homemade, rough-hewn bookcase about three feet tall with three shelves. One shelf held the encyclopedia, a gift from our uncle, books that provided my brothers and me a chance to see the world without leaving home.

The other shelves held a hodgepodge of books, most of which were giveaways my mother picked when school librarians thinned their collections at the end of the year. I read what we had and cherished the days that our class at school was allowed to go to the library — a space I approached the way most people approach religious buildings — and the days when the bookmobile came to our school from the regional library. It is no exaggeration to say that those books saved me: from a life of poverty, stress, depression and isolation.

James Baldwin, one of the authors who most spoke to my spirit, once put it this way:

“You think your pain and your heartbreak are unprecedented in the history of the world, but then you read. It was books that taught me that the things that tormented me the most were the very things that connected me with all the people who were alive, who had ever been alive.”

That is the inimitable power of literature, to give context and meaning to the trials and triumphs of living. That is why it was particularly distressing that The Atlantic’s Jordan Weissmann pointed out Tuesday that:

“The Pew Research Center reported last week that nearly a quarter of American adults had not read a single book in the past year. As in, they hadn’t cracked a paperback, fired up a Kindle, or even hit play on an audiobook while in the car. The number of non-book-readers has nearly tripled since 1978.”

The details of the Pew report are quite interesting and somewhat counterintuitive. Among American adults, women were more likely to have read at least one book in the last 12 months than men. Blacks were more likely to have read a book than whites or Hispanics. People aged 18-29 were more likely to have read a book than those in any other age group. And there was little difference in readership among urban, suburban and rural population.

I understand that we are now inundated with information, and people’s reading habits have become fragmented to some degree by bite-size nuggets of text messages and social media, and that takes up much of the time that could otherwise be devoted to long-form reading. I get it. And I don’t take a troglodytic view of social media. I participate and enjoy it.

But reading texts is not the same as reading a text. There is no intellectual equivalent to allowing oneself the time and space to get lost in another person’s mind, because in so doing we find ourselves.

Take it from me, the little boy walking to the Kmart checkout with the picture book pressed to his chest.


So, is the future of books in jeopardy? – I don’t think so. Books and other written texts are still the dominant gateways in our society to education and knowledge. Take this quote from the Pew Research Center Report: “People aged 18-29 were more likely to have read a book than those in any other age group.” Why? The answer is pretty simple – this age group is the most likely to be pursuing some sort of education (i.e. a college degree) or training to gain a particular advantage when it’s time to enter the job market. Whether they are required to or not, books can provide that edge.

The real threat of social media and video games with respect to books concerns the decline in reading as a hobby. I believe this is more of a generational trend than a technological one. I will admit that iPads, iPhones, and tablets are making social media and other entertainment more accessible to the world in so many different situations. One can definitely argue that they are taking over the monopoly books once held on long car, train, and airplane rides. I love books, but I’ll admit I have no inclination to go back to a time when the internet didn’t exist. What the heck did people even do?

But for “baby-boomers” like my dad growing up in the 1950’s, books were one of the only forms of entertainment. Television was still more or less in its infancy (if you even had one), and if you wanted to go to a movie or be social with your friends you hung out in “real life.” You didn’t send you friends text messages, and you certainly didn’t trash talk your opponent in a video game or chat with your “crush” on instant messenger (guilty). When you had free time, you read books, magazines, newspapers – anything you could get your hands on.

I digress – back to my point that the decline of book reading as a hobby is more generational than technological. Contrary to what most people think, older generations including my dad’s have embraced new technologies like tablets. And what do older folks like my dad do with them? They don’t check Facebook, Twitter, or play video games. They read books. They read books and newspapers and magazines because that’s what they did in their free time when they were younger.

Now, what does my niece (who didn’t grow up in the 1950’s) do with an iPad? She watches a movie because she can and that’s entertainment for her. I personally don’t want to be around her on an airplane when the iPad dies and there’s nothing mommy and daddy can do. For the majority (there is ALWAYS the exception) of young kids who have been “plugged in” since birth, reading a book for fun just isn’t that entertaining…

Welcome to the Jesuit Libraries Provenance Project

Click here to go straight to the JLPP Flickr Site!

Many objects in our everyday lives, from bumper-stickers on cars, to name-tags on suitcases, to dents on cellphones, demonstrate evidence of ownership and use. Books are no different.

Think back to your favorite childhood book. Did someone — a grandparent or a favorite aunt — inscribe that book to you? Did you write your name on the inside cover or leave your favorite bookmark inside to make sure everyone, including your pesky jealous siblings, knew it was yours? Perhaps Mom or Dad read it to you so much that the binding is worn or even entire pages are falling out? The books in our lives often bear traces of their ownership and use. So, too, do the books that we borrow from the library.


St. Ignatius College Main Library Room c. 1894

The goal of the Jesuit Libraries Provenance Project is to uncover the history of the acquisition and use of Loyola’s original library books.  It grew out of an initiative to reconstruct the earliest surviving library catalogue of St Ignatius College (founded 1870), the forerunner to Loyola University Chicago.  In the course of this work, it was  discovered that over 1750 original books still survive in the Loyola university libraries today — in Special Collections, in the Library Storage Facility, even still circulating in the main stacks of the Cudahy Library.



Cudahy Library c. 1930 and Today

Over the coming months, the Provenance Project team will be photographing and analyzing these survivals and posting images of their titlepages, bindings, marginalia, and ownership marks on the social media image-sharing site Flickr.  The assembly of a visual archive of marks of ownership — labels, bookplates, inscriptions, notes, stamps, images, doodles — and inserted objects — prayer cards, bookmarks, pressed flowers — may help us answer some of the following questions:

1.  Where did the book come from, and how did it make its way into the collection of St. Ignatius College?

2. Who might have previously owned the book before it came into St Ignatius’ collection?

3. Does the book bear any evidence of how it was read or used?

4. What does the book tell us about the late nineteenth-century Jesuits, Catholicism, and America?


St. Ignatius of Loyola, Founder of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits)

The Jesuit Libraries Provenance Project Flickr site publicly launched in early March. Flickr’s social media image-sharing platform will allow users around the world to view and comment, as well as identify and transcribe rare book labels, bookplates, inscriptions, notes, stamps, illustrations, and engravings.


Click here to go straight to the JLPP Flickr Site!

Whether you are a student, a scholar, an alum, an archivist, a collector, or a lover of old books, we hope you will visit the site each week to see the newest uploads.  We need your help in identifying and transcribing illegible or unidentifiable marks of provenance. In the process of sharing and uncovering information about the histories of individual books we will ultimately uncover the history of Loyola’s first library and of the school itself.

We encourage you to follow our blog as well as our Facebook and Twitter pages to learn more about the creation of the Jesuit Libraries Project and the organizations who support and believe in its continued success. We also invite you to meet or contact our current staff working on the project and read our recent posts on this blog which will keep you up-to date on all things related to the Jesuit Libraries Provenance Project.

Finally, feel free to contact anyone who is a part of the provenance project team to ask questions or offer your ideas, suggestions, or insights. We look forward to hearing from you!

Joshua Arens
Jesuit Libraries Provenance Project Coordinator